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  • 14-June-2019

    English

    Good Practice for Good Jobs in Early Childhood Education and Care

    Recruiting and retaining skilled staff is a long-standing challenge for the early childhood education and care (ECEC) sector. OECD countries are increasingly demanding that ECEC staff be highly skilled and highly qualified, but a combination of low wages, a lack of status and public recognition, poor working conditions, and limited opportunities for professional development mean that recruitment and retention are frequently difficult. What can countries do to build a highly qualified and well-trained ECEC workforce? What is the best route to increasing staff skills without exacerbating staff shortages? How can countries boost pay and working conditions in the context of limited resources? Building on past OECD work on early childhood education and care, and drawing on the experience of OECD countries, this report outlines good practice policy measures for improving jobs in ECEC and for constructing a high-quality workforce.
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  • 14-June-2019

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Thailand - Volume 3: From Analysis to Action

    Thailand is a fast emerging country that aspires to become a high-income economy by 2037. Strong growth has enabled the country to join the group of upper-middle-income economies in the early 2010s and to perform well in many areas. At the same time, the benefits of prosperity have not been shared evenly nationwide and the economic development has taken a toll on the environment. Moving forward, Thailand needs to master three transitions to build capabilities and sustain faster but also more inclusive economic growth: enabling further growth by unlocking the full potential of all Thailand’s regions; developing more effective methods of organisation and collaboration between actors and levels of government; managing water security and disaster risk. Based on the previous volume’s in-depth analysis and policy recommendations, this report suggests a set of actions to support these transitions. The actions focus on the North of Thailand, one of the most diverse and yet poorest regions of the country.
  • 13-June-2019

    English

    Fiscal Decentralisation and Inclusive Growth in Asia

    This report looks at the challenges faced by Asian countries in addressing inclusive growth and fiscal decentralisation. A series of studies examines how policies in the region have evolved in accordance with changes in demography and the economic environment, reflecting country characteristics, history and political economy forces.
  • 12-June-2019

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Sweden 2019

    The OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. The policies and programmes of each DAC member are critically examined approximately once every five years. DAC peer reviews assess the performance of a given member, not just that of its development co-operation agency, and examine both policy and implementation. They take an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian assistance activities of the member under review.This review commends Sweden for its consistently generous levels of official development assistance and its global development leadership on peace and conflict prevention, environmental sustainability and gender equality. It also welcomes Sweden’s strong focus on and comprehensive toolbox for leaving no one behind. The review suggests that Sweden could benefit from consolidating its development co-operation policy framework and further enhancing the connections between its country, regional and thematic co-operation strategies.
  • 11-June-2019

    English

    Benchmarking Higher Education System Performance

    The scope of contemporary higher education is wide, and concerns about the performance of higher education systems are widespread. The number of young people with a higher education qualification is expected to surpass 300 million in OECD and G20 countries by 2030. Higher education systems are faced with challenges that include expanding access, containing costs, and ensuring the quality and relevance of provision. The project on benchmarking higher education system performance provides a comprehensive and empirically rich review of the higher education landscape across OECD countries, taking stock of how well they are performing in meeting their education, research and engagement responsibilities.
  • 11-June-2019

    English

    Artificial Intelligence in Society

    The artificial intelligence (AI) landscape has evolved significantly from 1950 when Alan Turing first posed the question of whether machines can think. Today, AI is transforming societies and economies. It promises to generate productivity gains, improve wellbeing and help address global challenges, such as climate change, resource scarcity and health crises. Yet, as AI applications are adopted around the world, their use can raises questions and challenges related to human values, fairness, human determination, privacy, safety and accountability, among others. This report helps build a shared understanding of AI in the present and near-term by mapping the AI technical, economic, use case and policy landscape and identifying major public policy considerations. It is also intended to help co-ordination and consistency with discussions in other national and international fora.
  • 11-June-2019

    English

    Leeks

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the Leeks Standard. This brochure illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus, it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade of leeks. Cette brochure est publiée dans le cadre du Régime pour l’Application de normes internationales pour les fruits et legumes établi par l’OCDE en 1962. Elle fournit des notes explicatives et des illustrations en vue de faciliter l’interprétation commune des normes en vigueur pour les poireaux. Elle décrit les paramètres qualitatifs par des photographies de haute qualité. Elle constitue par conséquent un outil précieux pour les autorités de contrôle, les organes professionnels et les négociants qui manifestent leur intérêt pour le commerce international des poireaux.
  • 11-June-2019

    English

    Addressing Problematic Opioid Use in OECD Countries

    Over the past few years, Canada and the United States have been experiencing an opioid crisis as a result of problematic opioid use fueled by the emergence of synthetic opioids such as fentanyl and carfentanil. Problematic opioid use is also spreading in other OECD countries, due to the upward trend of prescription opioid use and the complexities of the illegal drug supply. This report presents evidence on the magnitude of problematic opioid use across OECD countries, describes the main drivers, and identifies a set of policy actions to address them. The report highlights the opioid crisis as a complex public health issue that requires a comprehensive approach across all sectors, including health, social services, and law enforcement. Strong health information systems are also needed, particularly data and research. Preventing problematic opioid use requires a combination of policies that ensure more information is provided to patients and health care practitioners, while providing access to appropriate pain management treatment for patients. A public health approach to problematic opioid use must incorporate socio-economic considerations (e.g. employment and housing), which also need to be addressed to prevent problematic substance use in general.
  • 6-June-2019

    English

    Unpacking E-commerce - Business Models, Trends and Policies

    As digital transformation has accelerated, the e-commerce landscape has become increasingly dynamic. New players have emerged at the same time that established actors have taken on new roles; some barriers to e-commerce at the firm, individual and country levels have been overcome, while other barriers have emerged. Innovative business models have transformed buyer-seller relationships and pushed out the frontier of what is possible to buy and sell online. This report analyses new and emerging e-commerce business models, examines e-commerce trends along a range of dimensions, and offers new insights on the policies needed to exploit the opportunities and mitigate the challenges of unlocking the potential of e-commerce for all.
  • 6-June-2019

    English

    The Road to Integration - Education and Migration

    Migration has been at the centre of policy debates across the OECD in recent years. This synthesis report identifies eight pillars of policy-making that the Strength through Diversity project has revealed to be crucial if education systems to effectively support newcomers. For each pillar, the report details a set of principles driving the design and implementation of system-level policies and school-level practices. The eight pillars are: 1. consider the heterogeneity of immigrant populations, 2. develop approaches to promote the overall well-being of immigrants, 3. address the unique needs of refugee students, 4. ensure that motivation translates into a key asset for immigrant communities, 5. organise resources to reduce the influence of socio-economic status on the outcomes of immigrants, 6. provide comprehensive language support, 7. build the capacity of teachers to deal with diversity, and 8. break down barriers to social cohesion while ensuring effective service delivery.
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