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Publications


  • 23-June-2020

    English

    Improving Governance with Policy Evaluation - Lessons From Country Experience

    Policy evaluation is a critical element of good governance, as it promotes public accountability and contributes to citizens’ trust in government. Evaluation helps ensure that decisions are rooted in trustworthy evidence and deliver desired outcomes. Drawing on the first significant cross-country survey of policy evaluation practices covering 42 countries, this report offers a systemic analysis of the institutionalisation, quality and use of evaluation across countries and looks at how these three dimensions interrelate. The report also covers cross-cutting aspects related to regulatory assessment and performance budgeting. The analysis illustrates the role and functions of key institutions within the executive, such as centres of government and ministries of finance. It also underlines the role of supreme audit institutions.
  • 23-June-2020

    English

    OECD Skills Strategy Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) - Assessment and Recommendations

    Skills are the key to shaping a better future and central to the capacity of countries and people to thrive in an increasingly interconnected and rapidly changing world. Megatrends such as globalisation, technological advances, and demographic change are reshaping work and society, generating a growing demand for higher levels and new sets of skills. OECD Skills Strategy projects provide a strategic and comprehensive approach to assess countries’ skills challenges and opportunities and help them build more effective skills systems. The OECD works collaboratively with countries to develop policy responses that are tailored to each country’s specific skills needs. The foundation of this approach is the OECD Skills Strategy Framework, which allows for an exploration of what countries can do better to: 1) develop relevant skills over the life course; 2) use skills effectively in work and in society; and 3) strengthen the governance of the skills system. This report, 'OECD Skills Strategy Northern Ireland (United Kingdom): Assessment and Recommendations', identifies opportunities and makes recommendations to reduce skills imbalances, create a culture of lifelong learning, transform workplaces to make better use of skills, and strengthen the governance of skills policies in Northern Ireland.
  • 23-June-2020

    English

    Innovation for Development Impact - Lessons from the OECD Development Assistance Committee

    The development co-operation community needs to innovate to meet the global challenges ahead. Although it has an established track record for innovating partnerships, funding instruments and technologies, they are not enough to deliver the Sustainable Development Goals. This report synthesises the lessons emerging from an OECD Development Assistance Committee peer learning exercise on how innovation efforts can be strengthened, individually and collectively, to achieve the 2030 Agenda. The report is organised around three blocks – strategy, management and culture; organisation and collaboration; and, the innovation process – and provides recommendations on how innovation can best benefit poor and vulnerable people around the world.
  • 22-June-2020

    English

    Regulatory Policy in the Slovak Republic - Towards Future-Proof Regulation

    Slovakia has introduced important reforms to strengthen its regulatory policy framework, but certain challenges remain. This report assesses the country’s regulatory management capacity by taking stock of regulatory policies, institutions and tools, including administrative simplification policies, ex ante and ex post evaluation of regulations, stakeholder engagement practices, multi-level regulatory governance arrangements and innovative approaches to regulation. The review describes trends and recent developments, identifies gaps in relation to good practices and offers policy recommendations based on best international practices to strengthen the government’s capacity to manage regulatory policy. Improving the entire regulatory policy cycle will ensure that regulations are built on a foundation of solid evidence and public participation and are designed to improve the security, health and well-being of citizens at a reasonable cost.
  • 22-June-2020

    English

    Carbon pricing design: Effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility - An investment perspective

    Carbon pricing helps countries steer their economies towards and along a carbon-neutral growth path. This paper considers how the design of carbon pricing instruments affects their effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility. Design choices matter both for taxes and Emissions Trading Systems (ETSs). Considering the role of carbon price stability for clean investment, the paper shows how volatile carbon prices can cause risk-averse investors to forego clean investment that they would have undertaken with more stable prices. The paper then evaluates the effectiveness and efficiency of policy instruments to stabilise carbon prices in ETSs, which tend to produce more volatile carbon prices than taxes. The paper analyses the auction reserve price in California, the carbon price support in the UK, and the market stability reserve in the EU ETS. Considering feasibility, the paper discusses the tax (or emissions) base, how revenue use can affect support from households and firms, and administrative choices.
  • 22-June-2020

    English

    Who Cares? Attracting and Retaining Care Workers for the Elderly

    This report presents the most up-to-date and comprehensive cross-country assessment of long-term care (LTC) workers, the tasks they perform and the policies to address shortages in OECD countries. It highlights the importance of improving working conditions in the sector and making care work more attractive and shows that there is space to increase productivity by enhancing the use of technology, providing a better use of skills and investing in prevention. Population ageing has outpaced the growth of workers in the long-term care (LTC) sector and the sector struggles with attracting and retaining enough workers to care for those dependent on others for care. Non-standard work is widespread, pay levels tend to be lower than similar-qualification jobs in other health sectors, and LTC workers experience more health problems than other health workers. Further, educational requirements tend to be insufficient to perform more demanding and growing tasks of LTC. With growing demand for care at home, better co-ordination between the health and long-term care sectors and between formal and informal careers is needed.
  • 22-June-2020

    English

    Towards a green fiscal reform in the Slovak Republic - Proposals for strengthening the role of market-based environmental policy instruments

    Environmental fiscal reforms are an essential building block to steer countries onto a sustainable long-term development path. This paper develops proposals for strengthening the role of market-based environmental policy instruments in the Slovak Republic. The paper discusses reform options aimed at mitigating air pollution and climate change, improved waste management and biodiversity conservation. This includes measures such as introduction of automatic indexation of environmentally related taxes, differentiation of energy tax rates by emission intensity of fuels, broadening tax bases to include all emission sources and reforming preferential fiscal treatment of household fuel use – a major source of local air pollution. In the waste management domain, raising the landfill tax to better reflect external environmental costs of particular tax bases would help encourage diversion of waste from landfills. A complementary waste incineration tax would help incentivise waste prevention, composting and material recycling.
  • 19-June-2020

    English

    Housing and inequality - The case of Luxembourg and its cross-border workers

    The rate of homeownership is close to the OECD average in Luxembourg. However, strong house price increases, mainly driven by population growth and limited housing supply, led to a deterioration in affordability of housing, in particular for the young and added to the wealth gap between homeowners and renters.
  • 18-June-2020

    English

    Global EV Outlook 2020 - Entering the decade of electric drive?

    The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. It is developed with the support of the members of the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI). Combining historical analysis with projections to 2030, the report examines key areas of interest such as electric vehicle and charging infrastructure deployment, ownership cost, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and battery material demand. This edition features case studies on transit bus electrification in Kolkata (India), Shenzhen (China), Santiago (Chile) and Helsinki (Finland). The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate learning from frontrunner markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders that consider policy frameworks and market systems for electric vehicle adoption. This edition also features an update on the performance and costs of batteries. It further extends the life cycle analysis conducted in Global EV Outlook 2019, assessing the technologies and policies that will be needed to ensure that EV battery end-of-life treatment contributes to the fullest extent to sustainability and CO2 emissions reductions objectives. Finally, it analyses how off-peak electricity demand charging, dynamic controlled charging (V1G) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) could mitigate the impact of EVs on peak demand, facilitate the integration of variable renewables and reduce electricity generation capacity needs.
  • 18-June-2020

    English

    Resourcing Higher Education - Challenges, Choices and Consequences

    Investment in higher education in OECD countries has increased substantially over the last 20 years, as a result of higher enrolment, increasing costs, government priorities related to skills, and research and innovation. Faced with economic and fiscal challenges, public authorities across the OECD need now more than ever to make thoughtful decisions about how to mobilise, allocate and manage financial and human resources in higher education. Effective action on the part of governments requires knowledge of international trends and alternative policy approaches; evidence from research and policy evaluations; and the practical experience of peers in other countries. The OECD Higher Education Resources Project addresses these needs by providing an accessible international evidence base for policy makers in Resourcing Higher Education, and targeted system-specific analyses in upcoming policy briefs and national policy reviews.
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