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Publications


  • 17-April-2019

    English

    Investing in Youth: Peru

    The present report on Peru is part of the series on 'Investing in Youth', which builds on the expertise of the OECD on youth employment, social support and skills. This series covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The report provides a detailed diagnosis of youth policies in the areas of social, employment, education and training policies. Its main focus is on young people who are not in employment, education or training (the 'NEETs').Earlier reviews in the same series have looked at youth policies in Brazil (2014), Latvia and Tunisia (2015), Australia, Lithuania and Sweden (2016), Japan (2017), and Norway (2018).
  • 17-April-2019

    English

    Good Governance for Critical Infrastructure Resilience

    Critical infrastructures are the backbone of modern, interconnected economies. The disruption of key systems and essential services - such as telecommunications, energy or water supply, transportation or finance - can cause substantial economic damage. This report looks at how to boost critical infrastructure resilience in a dynamic risk landscape, and discusses policy options and governance models to promote up-front resilience investments. Based on an international survey, the report analyses the progressive shift of critical infrastructure policies from asset protection to system resilience. The findings are reflected in a proposed Policy Toolkit for the Governance of Critical Infrastructure Resilience, which can guide governments in taking a more coherent, preventive approach to protecting and sustaining essential services.
  • 16-April-2019

    English

    Delivering Better Policies Through Behavioural Insights - New Approaches

    As behavioural insights (BI) become more widely used, countries are looking to expand the application of the methodology to new frontiers of policy making. This report tests behaviourally informed solutions to complex policy problems in the fields of competition, consumer protection, energy consumption and safety through a variety of theoretical and experimental approaches. The results give policy makers new ideas for tackling policy problems related to individual behaviour, as well as for changing the behaviour of organisations.
  • 16-April-2019

    English

    Evaluating Latvia's Active Labour Market Policies

    This report on Latvia is the fifth country study published in a series of reports looking into how policies connect people with jobs. It focuses on Latvia's long-term unemployed and those at risk of long-term unemployment. The report analyses linked administrative microdata to evaluate quantitatively the impact of activation policies elaborated in Latvia’s Inclusive Employment Strategy 2015-2020. More specifically, it assesses the effectiveness of training measures, employment subsidies and a programme promoting regional mobility. This report derives policy lessons from the empirical results to help the Latvian authorities adjust the activation strategies and measures in order to strengthen labour market participation of the unemployed and improve their labour market outcomes, helping them move into more productive and better quality jobs.
  • 15-April-2019

    English

    Open Government in Biscay

    The Review analyses the open government agenda of the Province of Biscay, based on the 2017 OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government. It assesses Biscay’s initiatives regarding transparency, accountability and stakeholder participation and how they impact the quality of public service delivery. This review also evaluates Biscay’s institutional, legal and policy frameworks for the implementation of these initiatives, focusing on the creation of a sound monitoring and evaluation system. The report includes recommendations to foster a public governance culture that empowers all stakeholders to actively participate throughout the entire policy cycle. This is the first OECD Open Government Review carried out in a subnational government of an OECD member country.
  • 15-April-2019

    English

    Corporate Governance in MENA - Building a Framework for Competitiveness and Growth

    A strong corporate governance framework is essential for MENA economies as they strive to boost economic growth, strengthen competitiveness and build prosperous societies. The G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises are a reference in order to build such a framework. This report assesses the corporate governance landscape in the MENA region by identifying challenges and proposing policy options for reform. The findings of the report are based on an analysis of policies and practices in four thematic areas: boosting access to finance and capital markets, improving transparency and disclosure, achieving gender balance in corporate leadership and enhancing the governance of state-owned enterprises in MENA. Overall, the report finds that MENA economies have made progress in strengthening corporate governance frameworks in recent years, but that the region still faces challenges in adopting and implementing corporate governance measures that support economic efficiency, sustainable growth and financial stability.
  • 15-April-2019

    English

    OECD Quarterly International Trade Statistics - Volume 2018 Issue 4

    This reliable and up-to-date source of OECD quarterly balance of payments and international merchandise trade statistics provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Balance of payments data are presented adjusted for seasonal variations. International trade data are broken down by country. The series shown cover data for the last ten quarters and two years available. This quarterly publication is divided into three parts: I. Balance of payments and international trade, II. International merchandise trade by country and III. International trade by commodity (annual data). The third part is a special topic which changes with each publication.
  • 12-April-2019

    English

    Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2019 - An OECD Scoreboard

    Sufficient and affordable access to different sources of finance is crucial to allow SMEs and entrepreneurs to reach their full potential. The 8th edition of the Scoreboard on SME and Entrepreneurship Finance report provides data from 46 countries around the world on debt finance, alternative finance instruments and financing conditions, as well as information on policy initiatives to improve their access to finance.In 2017, SME bank credit increased at a modest pace in many countries and declined in some others, in the context of broadly positive macroeconomic conditions, improvements in the business environment and accommodative credit conditions. In contrast, volumes were generally up for most other sources of finance relevant for SMEs and entrepreneurs, such as leasing, factoring, online alternative finance, and venture capital investments. At the same time, a growing share of SMEs relied on self-financing for their investment needs and cash flow requirements in 2017.The thematic chapter of this publication investigates the potential for SMEs to leverage their intangible assets to access external finance, especially debt.
  • 11-April-2019

    English

    Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in Latvia

    Latvia, a member of the European Union since 2004, is a small, dynamic and open economy that has successfully transitioned from central planning to a market economy. The reforms undertaken have driven progress, although from generally low levels and at a slower pace in agriculture than for the economy as a whole. This report examines the conditions under which farms and businesses in the food and agriculture sector in Latvia undertake innovation to become more productive and environmentally sustainable. It identifies opportunities as well as challenges that need to be addressed. These include economy wide skills shortage, emigration and population decline and urban concentration of population and services. At the sectoral level, these include the use of agricultural payments to support a large number of non-commercial farms and the high level of unpaid farm labour. To meet these challenges, agricultural innovation can be harnessed to improve the sector’s productivity, as well as the sustainability and efficiency of the food system. This report provides a series of recommendations that should allow agricultural policies to contribute to a well-functioning innovation system that can meet the challenges that lie ahead.
  • 11-April-2019

    English

    Taxing Wages 2019

    This annual publication provides details of taxes paid on wages in OECD countries. It covers personal income taxes and social security contributions paid by employees, social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by employers, and cash benefits received by in-work families. It illustrates how these taxes and benefits are calculated in each member country and examines how they impact household incomes. The results also enable quantitative cross-country comparisons of labour cost levels and the overall tax and benefit position of single persons and families on different levels of earnings. The publication shows average and marginal effective tax rates on labour costs for eight different household types, which vary by income level and household composition (single persons, single parents, one or two earner couples with or without children). The average tax rates measure the part of gross wage earnings or labour costs taken in tax and social security contributions, both before and after cash benefits, and the marginal tax rates the part of a small increase of gross earnings or labour costs that is paid in these levies.Taxing Wages 2019 includes a special feature entitled: 'The Taxation of Median Wage Earners'.
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