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Publications


  • 24-February-2020

    English

    OECD Study on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Observatory - Strengthening the Implementation of International Standards

    The effective control of animal diseases and zoonoses requires co-ordinated policy action among countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), an intergovernmental organisation, offers a comprehensive framework increasing transparency on animal disease status, strengthening national veterinary services, and facilitating safe international trade of live animals and animal products. To achieve these objectives, OIE Members adopt a number of voluntary normative instruments, commonly referred to as OIE’s international standards. While the OIE works to support its Members in implementation, Members continue to face challenges in the use of these standards. This OECD study provides a diagnostic of the current state of play of OIE standards and of the data collection mechanisms that are (or may be) used to gather information on how they are implemented domestically. Based on this diagnostic, the OECD provides recommendations to support the OIE in establishing an Observatory to enhance the use and effectiveness of its standards.
  • 21-February-2020

    English

    Measuring Green Finance Flows in Kazakhstan

    Credible statistical information can serve as a powerful tool for the Republic of Kazakhstan to plan for, and monitor progress on, its transition to a green economy. While available data by Kazakhstan's Committee on Statistics already provide some useful information (e.g. investment and operational expenditures as a share of GDP are 0.2% and 0.4% respectively, which remain low), further improvement in coverage, granularity and quality of statistical information can better inform policy-making on green economy transition. This report examines how Kazakhstan’s national statistical system works and how it can be further improved to better measure and understand financial flows that contribute to a green economy transition. The analysis also builds on a range of relevant international and national initiatives on sustainable finance.
  • 20-February-2020

    English

    Innovative Approaches for the Management of Labor Migration in Asia

    This report analyzes labor migration trends in Asia and puts them in the context of demographic and policy trends. It provides an overview of the population trends in different Asian countries and looks at policy settings in several sending and destination countries of labor migrants. It examines different approaches to effective labor migration management, including the imposition and regulation of fees and costs, and reviews the relevant policies in Asia and the Pacific. The report also looks forward to new approaches, examining the concept of skills mobility partnerships and how existing migration channels in Asia could be innovated using this concept. The chapters reflect the discussions that took place at the 'Ninth Roundtable on Labor Migration in Asia: Innovative Approaches for the Effective Management of Labor Migration in Asia,' held in Tokyo in February 2019. The event, co-organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the International Labour Organization, brought together regional experts and policy makers.The report provides the most up-to-date comparative statistics on labor migration flows in and from Asia. The introductory chapter reviews the recent regional trends and newly available data on the changes in the stock of Asian migrants, while two statistical annexes offer detailed country fact sheets and coverage of intra-Asia and cross-regional migration flows.
  • 19-February-2020

    English

    Continuous Learning in Working Life in Finland

    Finland’s skill development system is one of the most successful in the OECD. The country’s 15-year old students have been amongst the top performers of all the countries participating in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) since its first edition in 2000. Its adult population has some of the highest levels of literacy and numeracy in the OECD, according to the OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), surpassed only by Japan. To maintain these remarkable performances, the skill development system needs to adapt to a rapidly changing labour market. Globalisation, technological change and population ageing are affecting the types of jobs that are and will be available in Finland and how they are carried out. Today, the vast majority of new jobs created require high levels of skills, while meta-cognitive and digital skills are becoming more important in working life. Skill shortages in the Finnish labour market are increasingly apparent and there are growing concerns about the supply of higher-level skills, given demographic change and stagnating educational attainment levels. Finland’s skill development system must get future-ready. This report analyses the status quo of the Finnish continuous learning system for adults, highlights its key challenges and makes actionable policy recommendations.
  • 18-February-2020

    English

    Towards Sustainable Land Use - Aligning Biodiversity, Climate and Food Policies

    Land use is central to many of the environmental and socio-economic issues facing society today. This report examines on-going challenges for aligning land-use policy with climate, biodiversity and food objectives, and the opportunities to enhance the sustainability of land-use systems. It looks at six countries – Brazil, France, Indonesia, Ireland, Mexico and New Zealand – with relatively large agricultural and forestry sectors and associated greenhouse gas emissions, many of which also host globally important biodiversity. Drawing on these countries’ relevant national strategies and plans, institutional co-ordination and policy instruments, the report provides good practice insights on how to better align land use decision-making processes and to achieve stronger coherence between land use, climate, ecosystems and food objectives.
  • 17-February-2020

    English

    Decentralisation and Regionalisation in Portugal - What Reform Scenarios?

    This report has been prepared by the OECD upon request by the Portuguese Independent Commission for Decentralisation. Decentralisation and regionalisation reforms have recently emerged on the Portugal’s policy agenda, with two main objectives: assigning more tasks to municipalities and strengthening regional level governance. The report presents a diagnosis of Portugal multi-level governance in international perspectives and highlights the strengths and challenges of the system. It then presents three potential policy paths of regional reform for Portugal. As the options are not mutually exclusive, they could work as complements to each other. The report analyses the conditions under which the reforms may deliver more economic efficiency and regional equity.
  • 14-February-2020

    English

    The Geography of Conflict in North and West Africa

    African governments are increasingly confronted with new forms of political violence. The situation is particularly worrying in the Sahara-Sahel where violence is on the rise. This degrading security situation has prompted African countries and their partners to intervene militarily to stabilise the region and to prevent the spread of extremism and violence against civilians. However, these initiatives face many obstacles due to the transnational nature and geography of violence. Tensions regionalise across state borders when armed groups, defeated by counter-insurgency efforts, relocate to other countries. This study maps the evolution of violence across North and West Africa, with a particular focus on Mali, Lake Chad and Libya. In the regions experiencing the highest levels of political insecurity, it identifies whether and how conflicts tend to cluster or spread, potentially across national borders. The work is based on a new spatial indicator of political violence designed to assess the long-term evolution of conflicts and provide policy options.
  • 11-February-2020

    English

    The Digitalisation of Science, Technology and Innovation - Key Developments and Policies

    This report examines digitalisation’s effects on science, technology and innovation and the associated consequences for policy. In varied and far-reaching ways, digital technologies are changing how scientists work, collaborate and publish. While examining these developments, this book also assesses the effects of digitalisation on longstanding policy themes, from access to publicly funded research data, to the diffusion of technology and its absorption by firms. New and emerging topics are also explored. These include the roles of artificial intelligence and blockchain in science and production, using digital technology to draw on the collective intelligence of the scientific community, advances in the digitalisation of biotechnology, and possible 'dark sides' of digitalisation.
  • 10-February-2020

    English

    Taxation in Agriculture

    This review of taxation in agriculture in 35 OECD countries and emerging economies outlines the diversity of tax provisions affecting agriculture, provides an overview of cross-country differences in tax policy, and confirms the widespread use of tax concessions specifically for agriculture, although their importance and modalities differ across tax areas and countries. Potential effects on innovation, productivity, and sustainability in the agricultural sector are also discussed.
  • 7-February-2020

    English

    Africa's Urbanisation Dynamics 2020 - Africapolis, Mapping a New Urban Geography

    Africa is projected to have the fastest urban growth rate in the world: by 2050, Africa’s cities will be home to an additional 950 million people. Much of this growth is taking place in small and medium-sized towns. Africa’s urban transition offers great opportunities but it also poses significant challenges. Urban agglomerations are developing most often without the benefit of policies or investments able to meet these challenges. Urban planning and management are therefore key development issues. Understanding urbanisation, its drivers, dynamics and impacts is essential for designing targeted, inclusive and forward-looking policies at local, national and continental levels. This report, based on the Africapolis geo-spatial database (www.africapolis.org) covering 7 600 urban agglomerations in 50 African countries, provides detailed analyses of major African urbanisation dynamics placed within historical, environmental and political contexts. Covering the entire distribution of the urban network — from small towns and secondary cities to large metropolitan regions — it develops more inclusive and targeted policy options that integrate local, national and regional scales of urban development in line with African realities.
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