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Publications


  • 26-April-2019

    English

    PISA 2018 Assessment and Analytical Framework

    This report presents the conceptual foundations of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), now in its seventh cycle of comprehensive and rigorous international surveys of student knowledge, skills and well-being. Like previous cycles, the 2018 assessment covered reading, mathematics and science, with the major focus this cycle on reading literacy, plus an evaluation of students’ global competence – their ability to understand and appreciate the perspectives and world views of others. Financial literacy was also offered as an optional assessment.The framework also includes the questionnaires distributed to students and school principals used to elicit information about student backgrounds and the school learning environment, as well as some questionnaires distributed to parents and teachers to assess factors associated with student outcomes. Students in some countries also completed further questionnaires on their educational trajectory, familiarity with information and communications technology, and well-being. 
  • 25-April-2019

    English

    Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital 2017 (Full Version)

    This publication is the tenth edition of the full version of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital. This full version contains the full text of the Model Tax Convention as it read on 21 November 2017, including the Articles, Commentaries, non-member economies’ positions, the Recommendation of the OECD Council, the historical notes and the background reports.The full version of the OECD Model Tax Convention is published regularly to reflect updates. It is available in print, PDF and web formats. The web format includes extensive interlinking, making it easy to link from articles to related commentaries. The web and PDF versions are available via the OECD iLibrary.
  • 24-April-2019

    English

    Latin America and the Caribbean 2019 - Policies for Competitive SMEs in the Pacific Alliance and Participating South American countries

    The SME Policy Index is a benchmarking tool that assists emerging economies in monitoring and evaluating progress in policies that support small and medium-sized enterprises. This first application of the Index methodology in the Latin American and Caribbean region covers the four Pacific Alliance member countries (Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru) and three participating South American countries (Argentina, Ecuador, Uruguay). Divided into seven policy dimensions, this report assesses the strengths and weaknesses that exist in different areas of SME policy design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation, and provides guidance to policy makers in identifying policy areas for future reform according to international good practices. This report is a joint effort between the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF) and the OECD through its Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Programme (LACRP), in co-operation with the Latin American and Caribbean Economic System (SELA) and the 'Foundation for the Strategic Analysis and Development of the SME' (FAEDPYME).
  • 24-April-2019

    English

    Can Social Protection Be an Engine for Inclusive Growth?

    The potential role of social protection in the development process has received heightened recognition in recent years, yet making a strong investment case for social protection remains particularly challenging in many emerging and developing countries. This report challenges us to think deeply about the economic rationale for social protection investments through an inclusive development lens. It helps us understand the links between social protection, growth and inequality; how to measure those links empirically; social protection’s impact on inclusive growth; and how to build a more solid economic case for greater social protection investments.The report adds to the debate on social protection in three ways. First, it proposes a methodological framework to conceptualise and measure the impact of social protection on what the OECD defines as inclusive growth. Second, it provides new empirical evidence on the impact of different social protection programmes on inclusive growth. Third, it helps strengthen the case for greater investments in social protection while also calling for better data to measure impacts.
  • 19-April-2019

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Sweden 2019

    Sweden is leading the way towards a low-carbon society. In recent years, the country has adopted an energy and climate framework with ambitious long‑term and interim goals, including a target of 100% renewable energy in electricity generation by 2040. In this review of Sweden’s energy policies, the International Energy Agency (IEA) looks at how the country is managing its energy transition, as well as how this transition affects energy security.Sweden’s electricity system – based on nuclear, hydro and a growing share of wind power – is nearly fossil‑free. The country, which is well interconnected with its neighbours, has become a large net exporter of electricity. However, the power sector faces uncertainty from the likely phase‑out of nuclear within the next few decades. The challenge will be to maintain stability while more variable forms of renewable energy enter the system to replace nuclear power.Sweden’s energy policies give preference to technology‑neutral measures and market mechanisms, with the aim to reduce emissions in a cost‑effective way. Carbon taxation in particular has been an effective driver of decarbonisation, and Sweden has showed that high environmental taxes can be combined with sustained economic growth. As the electricity and heat supply is largely decarbonised, the main challenge for Sweden is to reduce emissions in the transport sector, which gets special attention in the review.In this report, the IEA provides recommendations for further improvements of Sweden’s energy policy to help the country continue to transform its energy sectors in a secure, affordable and environmentally sustainable manner.
  • 19-April-2019

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Ireland 2019

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) has conducted in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries since 1976. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. This report on Ireland discusses the challenges faced as well as possible solutions to help the country’s energy sector continue towards a secure and sustainable future.Despite making substantial advances to transform its energy sector, Ireland is not on course to meet its 2020 greenhouse gas emissions reduction target. The decarbonisation of heating in buildings, one focus of this report, is a particular challenge.In a more positive development, wind power accounted for around one-quarter of total generation in 2017 – the third-highest share of all IEA member countries. Additionally, this report suggests that Ireland has considerable scope to further advance alternative means of transport and public transport infrastructure, especially in urban areas.In this report, the IEA provides recommendations for further improvements of Ireland’s energy policy to help the country continue to transform its energy sectors in order to meet the emissions reduction target for 2030.
  • 19-April-2019

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean 2019

    This report compiles comparable tax revenue statistics over the period 1990-2017 for 25 Latin American and Caribbean economies. Based on the OECD Revenue Statistics database, it applies the OECD methodology to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to enable comparison of tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among the economies of the region and with other economies. This publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development Centre, the Inter-American Center of Tax Administrations, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Inter-American Development Bank. The 2019 edition is the first to be produced with the support of the EU Regional Facility for Development in Transition for Latin America and the Caribbean, which results from joint work led by the European Union, the OECD and its Development Centre, and ECLAC.
  • 18-April-2019

    English

    Beyond Proficiency - Using Log Files to Understand Respondent Behaviour in the Survey of Adult Skills

    Computer-based administration of large-scale assessments makes it possible to collect a rich set of information on test takers, through analysis of the log files recording interactions between the computer interface and the server. This report examines timing and engagement indicators from the Survey of Adult Skills, a product of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), both of which indicate large differences across countries and socio-demographic groups, in the amount of time spent by respondents and their levels of disengagement, which reduce the probability of giving a correct answer and consequently reduces measured performance. Such insights can help policy makers, researchers and educators to better understand respondents’ cognitive strategies and the underlying causes of low and high performance. This, in turn, can help improve the design of assessments and lead to more effective training and learning programmes.
  • 17-April-2019

    English

    Investing in Youth: Peru

    The present report on Peru is part of the series on 'Investing in Youth', which builds on the expertise of the OECD on youth employment, social support and skills. This series covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The report provides a detailed diagnosis of youth policies in the areas of social, employment, education and training policies. Its main focus is on young people who are not in employment, education or training (the 'NEETs').Earlier reviews in the same series have looked at youth policies in Brazil (2014), Latvia and Tunisia (2015), Australia, Lithuania and Sweden (2016), Japan (2017), and Norway (2018).
  • 17-April-2019

    English

    Good Governance for Critical Infrastructure Resilience

    Critical infrastructures are the backbone of modern, interconnected economies. The disruption of key systems and essential services - such as telecommunications, energy or water supply, transportation or finance - can cause substantial economic damage. This report looks at how to boost critical infrastructure resilience in a dynamic risk landscape, and discusses policy options and governance models to promote up-front resilience investments. Based on an international survey, the report analyses the progressive shift of critical infrastructure policies from asset protection to system resilience. The findings are reflected in a proposed Policy Toolkit for the Governance of Critical Infrastructure Resilience, which can guide governments in taking a more coherent, preventive approach to protecting and sustaining essential services.
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