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Publications


  • 1-May-2019

    English

    Under Pressure: The Squeezed Middle Class

    Middle-class households feel left behind and have questioned the benefits of economic globalisation. In many OECD countries, middle incomes have grown less than the average and in some they have not grown at all. Technology has automated several middle-skilled jobs that used to be carried out by middle-class workers a few decades ago. The costs of some goods and services such as housing, which are essential for a middle-class lifestyle, have risen faster than earnings and overall inflation. Faced with this, middle classes have reduced their ability to save and in some cases have fallen into debt. This report sheds light on the multiple pressures on the middle class. It analyses the trends of middle-income households through dimensions such as labour occupation, consumption, wealth and debt, as well as perceptions and social attitudes. It also discusses policy initiatives to address the concerns raised by the middle class, by protecting middle-class living standards and financial security in the face of economic challenges.
  • 29-April-2019

    English

    OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2019

    This report presents a comprehensive overview of recent and longer-term trends in productivity levels and growth in OECD countries, accession countries, key partners and some G20 countries. An introductory chapter features an analysis of latest developments in productivity, employment and wages.
  • 29-April-2019

    English

    Iraq’s energy sector - A roadmap to a brighter future

    Iraq's Energy Sector: A Roadmap to a Brighter Future is the International Energy Agency’s first in-depth analysis of the country’s energy sector since 2012. It examines the problems affecting Iraq’s power sector and offers recommendations for how to address the situation, including the potential role of renewables. It also takes a detailed look at the country’s oil and gas industry and its prospects for the next decade.
  • 26-April-2019

    English

    PISA 2018 Assessment and Analytical Framework

    This report presents the conceptual foundations of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), now in its seventh cycle of comprehensive and rigorous international surveys of student knowledge, skills and well-being. Like previous cycles, the 2018 assessment covered reading, mathematics and science, with the major focus this cycle on reading literacy, plus an evaluation of students’ global competence – their ability to understand and appreciate the perspectives and world views of others. Financial literacy was also offered as an optional assessment.The framework also includes the questionnaires distributed to students and school principals used to elicit information about student backgrounds and the school learning environment, as well as some questionnaires distributed to parents and teachers to assess factors associated with student outcomes. Students in some countries also completed further questionnaires on their educational trajectory, familiarity with information and communications technology, and well-being. 
  • 26-April-2019

    English

    Chinese companies energy activities in emerging Asia

    The People’s Republic of China ('China') has become one of the major providers of capital, construction services, and equipment to the energy sectors of developing and emerging economies. It has contributed to the power systems as well as the oil and gas sectors in the countries of these regions. Chinese energy and energy infrastructure companies, largely state-owned, are active across the energy sector in most fuels and through diverse modalities.This report analyses the construction services, equipment, and investments provided by Chinese energy and energy infrastructure companies in the power, coal, oil, and gas sectors in non-OECD emerging Asian countries. It uses an integrated approach to provide a fact-based quantitative overview across the energy sector that complements existing research efforts. It identifies the main Chinese stakeholders, highlights major trends, and analyses strategies and drivers.Findings reveal that, while the construction services, equipment and investments provided by Chinese companies are significant, they supply only part of emerging Asian economies’ energy sector needs; their role remains relatively modest compared to those of other companies.
  • 25-April-2019

    English

    OECD Employment Outlook 2019 - The Future of Work

    The 2019 edition of the OECD Employment Outlook presents new evidence on changes in job stability, underemployment and the share of well-paid jobs, and discusses the policy implications of these changes with respect to how technology, globalisation, population ageing, and other megatrends are transforming the labour market in OECD countries. The report discusses how labour market regulation might be used to extend rights and protections beyond standard employees, as well as to rebalance bargaining power between employers and workers. It analyses how collective bargaining and social dialogue can be mobilised to address emerging challenges in the labour market, looking at the role of government, social partners and new forms of collective organisation. The role of adult learning is also addressed, with a particular focus on the most vulnerable groups. And finally the report also assesses challenges for social protection policies, presenting evidence on the support gaps affecting different types of worker, and discussing reform avenues for preserving and strengthening the key stabilising role of social protection systems.
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  • 25-April-2019

    English

    Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital 2017 (Full Version)

    This publication is the tenth edition of the full version of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital. This full version contains the full text of the Model Tax Convention as it read on 21 November 2017, including the Articles, Commentaries, non-member economies’ positions, the Recommendation of the OECD Council, the historical notes and the background reports.The full version of the OECD Model Tax Convention is published regularly to reflect updates.
  • 24-April-2019

    English

    Latin America and the Caribbean 2019 - Policies for Competitive SMEs in the Pacific Alliance and Participating South American countries

    The SME Policy Index is a benchmarking tool that assists emerging economies in monitoring and evaluating progress in policies that support small and medium-sized enterprises. This first application of the Index methodology in the Latin American and Caribbean region covers the four Pacific Alliance member countries (Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru) and three participating South American countries (Argentina, Ecuador, Uruguay). Divided into seven policy dimensions, this report assesses the strengths and weaknesses that exist in different areas of SME policy design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation, and provides guidance to policy makers in identifying policy areas for future reform according to international good practices. This report is a joint effort between the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF) and the OECD through its Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Programme (LACRP), in co-operation with the Latin American and Caribbean Economic System (SELA) and the 'Foundation for the Strategic Analysis and Development of the SME' (FAEDPYME).
  • 24-April-2019

    English

    Can Social Protection Be an Engine for Inclusive Growth?

    The potential role of social protection in the development process has received heightened recognition in recent years, yet making a strong investment case for social protection remains particularly challenging in many emerging and developing countries. This report challenges us to think deeply about the economic rationale for social protection investments through an inclusive development lens. It helps us understand the links between social protection, growth and inequality; how to measure those links empirically; social protection’s impact on inclusive growth; and how to build a more solid economic case for greater social protection investments.The report adds to the debate on social protection in three ways. First, it proposes a methodological framework to conceptualise and measure the impact of social protection on what the OECD defines as inclusive growth. Second, it provides new empirical evidence on the impact of different social protection programmes on inclusive growth. Third, it helps strengthen the case for greater investments in social protection while also calling for better data to measure impacts.
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