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  • 30-octobre-2020

    Français

    Perspectives de l'OCDE sur les compétences 2019 - Prospérer dans un monde numérique

    Les économies et les sociétés sont en pleine transformation numérique. Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC), l'intelligence artificielle (IA) et la robotique modifient profondément la façon dont les gens travaillent, interagissent, communiquent et vivent. Ces transformations apportent à la fois des opportunités et des défis et l’aptitude des pays à tirer parti des avantages d’un monde numérique dépend largement des compétences de leur population. L’édition 2019 des Perspectives de l’OCDE sur les compétences a pour objectif de comprendre comment les politiques, en particulier celles qui affectent le développement et l’utilisation des compétences, peuvent influencer les résultats de la transformation numérique et garantir que la nouvelle vague technologique aboutisse à de meilleurs résultats pour tous. Pour que les individus puissent tirer parti des nouvelles technologies à la maison et au travail et ne soient pas laissés-pour-compte, un effort politique global et coordonné est nécessaire. Cet ensemble de politiques doit à la fois promouvoir la numérisation lorsque cette dernière augmente la productivité et le bien-être, et atténuer ses impacts négatifs. Les politiques en matière de compétences et d'éducation sont primordiales au sein de cet ensemble de politiques.
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  • 16-June-2020

    English

    Decarbonising Urban Mobility with Land Use and Transport Policies - The Case of Auckland, New Zealand

    The report presents an in-depth analysis of various policies that aim to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of urban transport. Decarbonising transport lies at the core of efforts to mitigate climate change and has close links to urban sustainability and housing affordability. The report identifies the drivers of rising emissions in the urban transport sector and offers pathways to reduce them through a combination of transport and land use policies. The analysis yields a holistic welfare evaluation of these policies, assessing them according to their environmental effectiveness, their economic efficiency and their impact on fiscal balance and housing affordability. The report concludes that significant reductions in emissions from urban transport can be achieved through a careful alignment of transport policies designed to promote the use of public transit and electric vehicles, and land use policies, which foster a more compact urban form. The study is based on the case of Auckland, New Zealand but the lessons drawn are relevant for institutions and governments working on issues relating to urban sustainability, transport, housing and climate change mitigation.
  • 28-mai-2020

    Français

    Intégrer les immigrants pour stimuler l’innovation au Québec, Canada

    L’attractivité du Québec auprès des migrants repose à la fois sur les politiques d’intégration au marché du travail et sur la nature des opportunités d’emploi. Cependant, bien que les immigrés du Québec figurent parmi les plus éduqués de l’OCDE, la province reste confrontée à de nombreux défis qui les empêchent de s’intégrer au marché du travail. Parmi ces défis, on note une maîtrise imparfaite de la langue française, la non-reconnaissance des qualifications étrangères, des différences culturelles qui se reflètent dans les habitudes professionnelles et un manque d’initiatives visant la promotion de l’entrepreneuriat. Dans le cadre de cette étude une enquête auprès employeurs a été réalisée afin de comprendre leur expérience en matière de recrutement d’immigrants et de connaître leur perception de l’utilité des outils disponibles pour favoriser l’intégration et l’embauche d’immigrants. Ce rapport présente une analyse des enjeux liés à l’intégration des migrants au niveau local et propose des exemples de bonnes pratiques mises en place dans d’autres régions de l’OCDE.
  • 15-May-2020

    English

    Broadening Innovation Policy - New Insights for Cities and Regions

    This publication summarises the main findings of a series of high-level expert workshops, organised with support by the European Commission, to deepen the understanding how OECD countries can move towards a broad‑based form of innovation policy for regions and cities. Weaknesses in technology and knowledge diffusion are weighing on productivity growth and innovation in OECD countries, particularly in firms that are distant from the technological frontier (global or national). This in turn weakens their capacity to meet future challenges and undermines inclusive growth. This report examines where current tools for innovation policy are too narrowly focused, targeting mainly research and development as well as science and technology-based interventions. It seeks to help empower firms to benefit from global trends and technological change, in order to better adapt to the different capacity and innovation eco‑systems across regions and cities.
  • 15-May-2020

    English

    The Future of Primary Health Care

    Citizen expectations about health services are growing, populations are ageing and health care needs are becoming more complex and costly. In this context, primary health care systems are being asked to do more and do things differently. As the first point of contact, strong primary care that provides comprehensive, continuous, and co-ordinated health care is key. It has the potential to improve health system efficiency and health outcomes for people across socio-economic levels, and make health systems people-centred. This report examines primary health care systems across OECD countries, and shows it is still not living up to these expectations in many countries. Doing things differently in primary health care – through new models of organising services, better co-ordination among providers, better use of digital technology, and better use of resources and incentives – helps to improve care, reduce cost growth, and reduce health inequalities. This report identifies key policy challenges that OECD countries need to address to realise the full potential of primary health care, and reviews their main progresses and innovations in their journey towards transforming primary health care for the 21st century.
  • 13-May-2020

    English

    Financing Water Supply, Sanitation and Food Protection - Challenges in EU Member States and Policy Options

    The OECD and DG Environment, the European Commission department responsible for EU policy on the environment, joined forces to examine current or future water-related financing challenges faced by EU member states. These include finance investments needed to comply with EU regulation for water supply as well as wastewater treatment and flood protection.As part of the research, new data was produced on the state of play and projected needs. It supported a comparison across member states and substantiated tailored policy discussions in selected countries and at European level. This report captures the rationale for the research, the main quantitative outcomes and the policy issues and recommendations that derived from this 2-year cooperation. Lessons from Europe can inspire similar research and policy discussions in other parts of the world.
  • 4-May-2020

    English

    Who Cares? Attracting and Retaining Care Workers for the Elderly

    This report presents the most up-to-date and comprehensive cross-country assessment of long-term care (LTC) workers, the tasks they perform and the policies to address shortages in OECD countries. It highlights the importance of improving working conditions in the sector and making care work more attractive and shows that there is space to increase productivity by enhancing the use of technology, providing a better use of skills and investing in prevention.Population ageing has outpaced the growth of workers in the long-term care (LTC) sector and the sector struggles with attracting and retaining enough workers to care for those dependent on others for care. Non-standard work is widespread, pay levels tend to be lower than similar-qualification jobs in other health sectors, and LTC workers experience more health problems than other health workers. Further, educational requirements tend to be insufficient to perform more demanding and growing tasks of LTC. With growing demand for care at home, better co-ordination between the health and long-term care sectors and between formal and informal careers is needed.
  • 30-April-2020

    English

    OECD Public Integrity Handbook

    The OECD Public Integrity Handbook provides guidance to government, business and civil society on implementing the OECD Recommendation on Public Integrity. The Handbook clarifies what the Recommendation’s thirteen principles mean in practice and identifies challenges in implementing them. The Handbook provides guidance on improving co-operation within government, as well between the national and subnational levels. To build cultures of integrity across government and society, the Handbook details the core elements of a merit-based human resource management system and the key ingredients of open organisational cultures. It also clarifies government’s role in providing guidance to companies, civil society and citizens on upholding public integrity values. Moreover, the Handbook unpacks how to use the risk management process to assess and manage integrity risks, and highlights how to use the enforcement system to ensure real accountability for integrity violations.
  • 30-April-2020

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Viet Nam - Towards an Integrated, Transparent and Sustainable Economy

    Since the launch of the Ðổi Mới economic reforms in 1986, Viet Nam has achieved tremendous economic and social progress. Today, it is well integrated on global markets, has enjoyed robust growth, and has seen remarkable poverty reduction. With its recent successful fiscal consolidation, its attractiveness as a trading destination and rapidly growing domestic middle class, Viet Nam faces a window of opportunity for its transition to an inclusive market economy. Three guiderails should form the basis of this strategy: integration, transparency and sustainability. Better integration between state-owned enterprises, foreign investors and domestic private companies in open markets will be key to future performance gains. Partnerships between universities and enterprises would also help upgrade skills and create innovation, thereby making the integration durable. Transparency and performance of government are prerequisites for trust and a key lever to enhance efficiency and productivity in most areas of the state and the economy. A more sustainable development path will need better management of water, air and energy to address climate change. Reforms of the social security system can also ensure that no one is left behind, especially in the face of a fast ageing population.
  • 30-April-2020

    English

    Achieving the New Curriculum for Wales

    Wales (United Kingdom) is on the path to transform the way children learn, with a new curriculum aimed to prepare its children and young people to thrive at school and beyond. The new curriculum for Wales intends to create a better learning experience for students, to engage teachers’ professionalism, and to contribute to the overall improvement of Welsh education. An education policy is only as good as its implementation, however, and Wales turned to the OECD for advice on the next steps to implement the curriculum. This report analyses the progress made with the new curriculum since 2016, and offers suggestions on the actions Wales should take to ready the system for further development and implementation. The analysis looks at the four pillars of implementation — curriculum policy design, stakeholders' engagement, policy context and implementation strategy — and builds upon the literature and experiences of OECD countries to provide tailored advice to Wales. In return, the report holds value not only for Wales, but also for other education systems across the OECD looking to implement a curriculum or to enhance their implementation processes altogether.
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