The objective of OECD work on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries is to assess and evaluate potential positive incentives and policy approaches aiming to contribute to global climate change mitigation.
This chapter provides an overview of climate change mitigation and adaptation funding (including for REDD) and examines the extent to which this delivers or could deliver biodiversity co-benefits. It identifies tools and techniques for targeting biodiversity co-benefits within climate change funding and discusses the key environmental and social safeguards that need to be considered. These include, for example, environmental and social impact assessments, benefit-sharing mechanisms, and transparent, participatory approaches.
Promoting Biodiversity Co-Benefits in REDD (2009) by Katia Karousakis
This report examines how biodiversity co-benefits in REDD can be enhanced, both at the design and implementation level. It discusses potential biodiversity implications of different REDD design options that have been put forward in the international climate change negotiations and proceeds by examining how the creation of additional biodiversity-specific incentives could be used to complement a REDD mechanism, so as to target biodiversity benefits directly. OECD Environment Working Papers no. 11. (also available in French: Promouvoir les avantages connexes liés à la biodiversité dans le cadre de la REDD).
Financing Mechanisms to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation: Issues in Design and Implementation (2007) by Katia Karousakis and Jan Corfee-Morlot
This paper identifies key features and examines performance issues pertinent to the design and implementation of a fund- or market-based mechanism to RED(D). Four key features relevant to an environmentally-effective and economically-efficient financing mechanism are establishing clear goals and objectives, ensuring sufficient and long-term sources of funding, developing eligibility and prioritisation criteria, ensuring accurate and consistent monitoring and performance evaluation. The paper reviews and assesses the recent proposals for RED(D) financing mechanisms under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to consider how they address these features.
Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation: Lessons Learned from Costa Rica and Mexico (2007) by Katia Karousakis
A number of options are being proposed for an instrument to reduce GHG emissions from deforestation (RED) in developing countries, including both market and non-market based approaches. This paper focuses on the use of a market-based approach to RED, based on lessons learned and good practices from payments for Environmental Services Programmes in Costa Rica and Mexico as well as other experiences from the climate change framework.
Initial Review of Policies and Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation (2006) by Katia Karousakis
At COP-11 in Montreal, a two-year process was initiated to consider policy approaches and incentive options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. This paper gives a brief overview of deforestation, outlining the economic concepts related to efficient land-use options and providing an introduction to some of the policy approaches and incentive options that are available to reduce emissions from deforestation. These include domestic and international approaches that have been used in the past to capture ‘forest values’ and options that have been suggested to date to capture the ‘carbon values’ associated with forests.