Norway has started the work on a restriction proposal of PFHxS and PFHxS-related compounds under the REACH regulation. The restriction proposal will be sent to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) in April 2019. Furthermore, PFHxS has been included in the national priority list. This listing means that the discharge of this substance shall be reduced as much as possible, and that industry shall monitor and report the use and discharge of this substance. In addition an SVHC (substance of very high concern) dossier is under development for PFBS. The dossier will be sent to ECHA in 2019 and if accepted PFBS will then be listed on the candidate list, which means that it is a candidate for further regulation in the EU.
Overview of Risk Reduction Approaches
Norway listed several long-chain PFASs on its national list of priority substances starting in 2003, based on monitoring data that showed high levels of these substances in the environment as well as their toxicological profiles. Norway’s approach to risk reduction has primarily been a combination of information dissemination and regulatory measures, administered by the Norwegian Environment Agency under the Ministry of Climate and Environment.
Regulatory measures on PFASs have been developed in communication with industry. All regulatory measures must be supported by risk assessments and cost-benefit analysis, which consider the availability of alternatives.
Since 2015, Norway nominated PFHxS its salts and PFHxS-related compounds to the Stockholm convention in May 2017, and these were found to fulfill the screening criteria (persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport and toxicity) in October 2017. In 2018, a risk profile for PFHxS has been developed, and accepted by the persistent organic pollutant (POP) review committee under the Stockholm convention.The next phase in the Stockholm convention is the development of a risk management evaluation which includes a proposal for possible measures and a recommendation for future regulation. This work will take place during 2018/2019 and should be finalized in the fall of 2019. Norway has also started the work on a restriction proposal of PFHxS and PFHxS-related compounds under the REACH regulation. The restriction proposal will be sent to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) in April 2019. Furthermore, PFHxS has been included in the national priority list. This listing means that the discharge of this substance shall be reduced as much as possible, and that industry shall monitor and report the use and discharge of this substance. In addition an SVHC (substance of very high concern) dossier is under development for PFBS. The dossier will be sent to ECHA in 2019 and if accepted PFBS will then be listed on the candidate list, which means that it is a candidate for further regulation in the EU.
Fluorine-containing fire-fighting foam has been substituted with fluorine-free alternatives in Avinor, the owner of most civil airports in Norway, and fluorine-containing foam is no longer in use at fire-fighting training sites with the Norwegian military forces.
Fluorine-containing fire-fighting foam is gradually substituted with fluorine free-alternatives in the offshore sector, and the use volumes of fluorine-containing foam are decreasing.
Focus of future activities in relation to risk reduction: Norway will complete the work with the proposal for regulation of PFHxS at the EU and global level, and inclusion of PFBS on the EU candidate list, as a substance of very high concern. Norway will continue to have focus on PFASs and assess the need for further risk reducing measures.
Table with Key Elements of Risk Reduction Approaches
|Action||Path taken||BEPs Implemented||Category of PFASss addressed||Articles covered?||Life cycle stage(s) addressed||Method of approach||Public- private partnership encouraged?||Level of constraint|
Monitoring and screening of PFASs in the environment
Link to Monitoring of environmental contaminants in air and precipitation (see also EBAS.nilu.no)
Link to Atmospheric deposition of organic contaminants in Norway (single report only)
|Continuous monitoring||Not relevant||Varies from year to year||Not relevant||Discharges from all life cycles are addressed||Analysis||No||None|
Discharge permits for waste treatment plants (WTP)
|WTP must apply for permission to discharge selected PFASs||Under development||Primarily PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA, C9-C14 PFCA||Not relevant||End of life-stage||Regulatory||No||WTP must screen and report levels of PFASs in their discharges, and must apply for permission for discharges|
Monitoring and clean-up of PFAS polluted soil at airport fire drill
|Airports must monitor levels of PFAS at their fire drill sites and propose measures to reduce pollution||Under development||PFOS and other relevant PFASs from AFFF||No||End-use||Regulatory||No||Airports must screen and report levels of PFASs in their soil, and must propose measures to reduce pollution|
|Follow-up of the PFOS regulation under the Stockholm Convention, with an aim to minimise exemptions||Continuous assessment of the necessity of exemptions from the PFOS ban in the Stockholm Convention||Guidelines implemented for acceptable purpose applications under the Stockholm Convention||PFOS and PFOS related substances||Yes||All||Regulatory||No||Fewer exemptions|
|Nomination of PFHxS, its salts and PFHxS-related compounds to the Stockholm Convention in May 2017. PFHxS fulfilled the screening criteria in October 2017. The risk profile of PFHxS will be evaluated by the POP review committee under the Stockholm convention autum 2018.||Possible global ban or restriction||PFHxS and PFHxS related substances||Yes||All||Regulatory||No||Ban/Restriciton|
|Ban on manufacture, production, import and retail of consumer products containing PFOA (as of June 2014)||Ban||Not relevant||PFOA and some closely related substances||Yes||All, except waste||Regulatory||No||Ban|
Analysis of PFAS in products
Link to PFASs in fire fighting foam
|Compliance and monitoring||Minimisation of PFASs used||Compounds subject to national regulation and other PFAS||Yes||Use in products||Enforcement, monitoring||No||Enforcement|
|Listing of PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA and C9-C14 perfluorinated carboxylic acids on the national priority list||Political target to reduce the use and emissions of compounds ofn the priority list||Minimisation of PFASs used||PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA and C9-C14
perfluorinated carboxylic acids
|Yes||All, including waste||Policy||No||Political|