Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the Better Policies Series tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of member and partner countries, focusing on how governments can make reform happen.
Canada has experienced solid improvements in living standards in the last two decades and enjoys a higher quality of life than many other OECD countries. However, not all population groups enjoy equally high levels of well-being. This brochure has been prepared to help the Canadian government identify key policy reforms that would help the country achieve more inclusive growth.
» French Version: Pour une croissance plus forte et plus inclusive au Canada
Chile: Policy Priorities for Stronger and More Equitable Growth (September 2015)
Thanks to sound macroeconomic policies and a commodity price boom Chile had, until recently, enjoyed a long phase of strong economic growth and job creation. This allowed living standards to significantly catch up with those in other OECD countries. But despite this remarkable progress, gaps vis-à-vis other OECD countries continue to be large for some well-being dimensions.
» Spanish version: Chile - Prioridades de políticas para un crecimiento más fuerte y equitativo (pdf)
Since the beginning of China’s economic transformation in the early 1970s, investment has been a key driver of China’s growth and has contributed to substantial improvements in living standards. Over three decades of average annual GDP growth of 10%, disposable incomes have soared, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of extreme poverty. The share of the population living in extreme poverty has declined from above 90% in the early 1980s to less than 10% today. However, this growth model is no longer sustainable. Returns on investment have declined, although they are still higher than those of the Asian Tigers. Excess capacity is plaguing several sectors, and negative externalities have been onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and income inequality. A key objective of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) is therefore to move the economy towards a path of more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth.
» Chinese version: 促成中国向 知识经济的转型
Policies for Sound and Effective Investment in China (March 2016)
A key objective of the Chinese government is to move the economy towards a more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth path as envisaged by the 13th Five-Year Plan. In this adjustment process, the country is seeking new approaches for smarter, greener and more productive investment. This will require mutually reinforcing reforms to improve investment planning, rebalance the role of government and market forces, mainstream responsible business conduct and encourage greater private investment, especially in green infrastructure. China’s growing role as an outward investor may act as catalyser for the required reforms at home, as Chinese private and state-owned enterprises have to adopt internationally recognised practices and standard.
» Chinese version: 推动中国实现健全 有效的投资
Rapid growth has changed the face of China, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty, facilitating unprecedented urbanisation and raising living standards. Yet a number of challenges need to be addressed to sustain strong, increasingly inclusive growth, so that benefits of rising prosperity can be shared evenly. This report provides evidence-based analysis, shares international best practices and identifies policy options.
» Chinese version: 一个都不能少：推动中国实现包容性增长 (pdf)
China in a Changing Global Environment (March 2015)
As preparation continues for the 13th five-year plan, China is at a crossroads. It is confronting the challenge of transforming what has been up to now a highly successful development model so that it can sustain stronger, fairer, greener and more balanced growth in the face of structural shifts domestically, and a rapidly changing global environment. A possible policy roadmap for sustaining China's transition towards a more inclusive, high-productivity and knowledge-based economy, that will ultimately support a transition to high-income status, would include initiatives spanning a broad range of policy domains.
» Chinese version: 新时代全球背景下的中国 (pdf)
China: Structural Reforms for Inclusive Growth (March 2014)
In spite of a slow and uneven global recovery over the past five years, China has maintained strong growth and continued to tackle income inequality, which had been rising, as well as poverty. Drawing on the collective experience of OECD member and partner countries, this report presents recent OECD analysis and policy advice in areas that are critical to China’s long-term economic performance and social development.
» Chinese version: 中国:推进包容性增长的结构改革 (pdf)
This report presents an update of OECD policy advice in areas that are critical to China’s long-term economic performance and social development. They include food security, social safety nets, health reform, green growth, climate change and urbanisation.
» Chinese version: 中华人民共和国 - 避免中等收入陷阱:实现可持续和包容性增长的政策 (pdf)
Colombia: Policy Priorities for Inclusive Development (January 2015)
Colombia’s recent economic performance has been one of the most dynamic in Latin America. The government’s major reform efforts have contributed to the improving economic and social situation. However, embarking on a path towards inclusive growth is vital in the context of successfully eradicating poverty, providing opportunities for its growing middle class and solidifying progress towards lasting peace. The road ahead to high-income status will be demanding and calls for major policy initiatives in areas such as education, innovation, infrastructure and rural development.
» Spanish version: Colombia - Políticas prioritarias para un desarrollo inclusivo
Euro area: Economic challenges and policy recommendations (February 2014)
The euro area is beginning to show the much-awaited signs of recovery. Area-wide efforts to strengthen the public finances and the institutional underpinnings of the monetary union are sowing the seeds of vigorous, inclusive growth. But comprehensive structural reforms are needed to enhance productivity and restore competitiveness in the years to come.
» Version française: Zone euro : Enjeux économiques et recommandations pour l'action publique (pdf)
To foster a stronger recovery, while boosting long-term growth prospects, a three-pillar approach is needed: supportive monetary policy, growth-friendly fiscal consolidation, and structural reforms. This note provides a summary assessment of Europe’s structural reforms, including (i) countries’ responsiveness
La mise en œuvre de la loi pour la croissance, l’activité et l’égalité des chances économiques va dans la bonne direction pour dynamiser l’économie française. Cette note rassemble l’analyse de l’OCDE sur les principales mesures de cette loi et nos recommandations pour aller plus loin en gardant le cap des réformes.
Les réformes actuelles vont dans la bonne direction et doivent être approfondies. L’objet de cette note n’est pas de faire un inventaire complet des atouts et des défis du système d’éducation français, mais, en mettant l’accent sur l’enjeu principal qui est celui de la réduction des inégalités, de proposer des mesures qui pourraient être mises en œuvre pour consolider la direction des réformes actuellement mises en œuvre.
L’accueil et l’éducation des jeunes enfants dans des établissements de qualité peuvent avoir un impact positif à long terme sur le développement et l’apprentissage des enfants, la réussite scolaire, y compris pour les plus démunis, et, plus tard, sur l’accès au marché de l’emploi et la mobilité socio-économique.
La France a des atouts considérables qui peuvent étayer un redressement de sa croissance : le pays est notamment leader dans un certain nombre de secteurs à forte intensité technologique et a un système social très développé. Mais les mécanismes qui lui permettraient de croître de façon plus affirmée se sont enrayés : les gains de productivité ont été modestes depuis le milieu des années 1990 et la compétitivité s’est dégradée. Les réformes structurelles engagées sont donc indispensables.
» English version: France - Structural reforms: Impact on growth and options for the future
France: Redresser la compétitivité (juillet 2014)
Améliorer la productivité et la compétitivité de l’économie française requiert d’agir de front sur l’innovation et la recherche, sur la concurrence, sur l’éducation et la formation professionnelle, ainsi que sur le fonctionnement du marché du travail, sur l’efficacité de l’action publique et sur la politique fiscale.
Promouvoir la croissance et la cohésion sociale (juin 2012)
Ce document présente les principales recommandations de l'OCDE pour la France dans des domaines essentiels tels que la croissance et l’emploi (efficacité des services publics, système financier, innovation, fonctionnement des marchés des produits et du travail, éducation, retraites, réforme fiscale, croissance verte et agriculture) et la justice sociale (santé, logement, famille, jeunesse, intégration).
Citizens in many countries are expressing dissatisfaction with how they believe trade, technology and immigration are affecting their daily lives. While much of this discontent can be traced back to the global economic crisis, its root causes are more complex. What can be done at the global, european and German level ?
» German version: Für eine bessere Globalisierung: Wie Deutschland der Kritik begegnen kann (pdf)
|Germany and the Euro area||
The euro area is faced with the double challenge of addressing diverging competitiveness patterns between its members while redressing it vis-à-vis the rest of world. Both developments call for strong and decisive policy actions to boost productivity in all European countries, and to create mechanisms allowing for a stronger link between productivity gains and wages. The report is designed to support European countries and institutions in their efforts to formulate and implement an agenda for inclusive growth and competitiveness in Europe.
This brochure proposes a strategy to correct imbalances and modernize the Greek economy, accompanied by action plans in the following areas: public administration and budgets; pensions; the governance of state owned enterprises; tax policies; employment and social policy; education; new sources of growth, innovation and green growth;competition; the complex political economy problems associated with reforms in the public sector.
» Greek version: Η Ελλάδα Με μια Ματιά Πολιτικές για Βιώσιμη Ανάκαμψη
Promoting Strong and Inclusive Growth in India (April 2017)
India’s economy continues to grow at an impressive rate, with projected annual GDP growth of 7.5% in 2017-18. India’s economic successes are being translated into increased well-being for its population. As GDP per capita has more than doubled in ten years, extreme poverty has declined substantially. Access to education has steadily improved, and life expectancy has risen. Looking to the future, it will be vital to fully tap into the potential offered by India's young population. This means investing in the large numbers of young people entering the labour market. Likewise, the rapid pace of development must be matched with the upgrades to infrastructure necessary to support it.
Structural Reforms in Italy: Impact on Growth and Employment (February 2015)
To improve Italy’s long-term growth prospects, comprehensive structural reforms are needed to boost competitiveness and support job creation. Drawing on the OECD Economic Survey of Italy 2015, this paper provides a snapshot of the government’s reform agenda and assesses the impact on productivity, employment and GDP of the reforms that have been introduced since 2012.
» Italian version: Riforme strutturali in Italia: Impatto su crescita e occupazione
With 25 years of sluggish economic growth, Japan’s per capita income has fallen from a level matching the average of the top half of OECD countries in the early 1990s to 14% below that today. Weak growth, together with rapid population ageing, has driven public debt into uncharted territory. Revitalising growth is thus the top priority for the Japanese government. With the labour force shrinking more rapidly than the population, per capita output can only grow through improvements in labour productivity and labour force participation. Japan’s highly-skilled labour force and its technological leadership can help close the gap with leading OECD countries in per capita income. But broad-based structural reforms, as envisaged in the third arrow of Abenomics, are needed to allow these strengths to fully achieve their potential. The initial impact of Abenomics in 2013 was impressive, and the reform process needs to continue.
» Japanese version: 日本：高齢化社会 における成長促進と 幸福度の向上
|Japan and the Euro area||
The global economy continues to run at low speed and many countries, particularly in Europe, seem unable to overcome the legacies of the crisis. With high unemployment, high inequality and low trust still weighing heavily, it is imperative to swiftly implement reforms that boost demand and employment and raise potential growth.
Korea’s focus on innovation (its R&D spending is the second highest in the OECD) combined with its highly skilled population (it is among the top performers in the OECD’s Programme of International Student Assessment) supported this success. However, the convergence of Korea’s living standards to those in the most advanced countries has stalled in recent years. Output growth has slowed from 4.4% annually over 2001-10 to 2.8% since 2011. The country faces strong competition from emerging economies, notably the People’s Republic of China in low- and medium-end markets, and with advanced economies in high-end markets. This makes it more difficult for Korea to further expand its global market share..
» Korean version: 디지털화: 한국의 차세대 생산 혁명을 위한 성장 동력
After a period of relatively robust growth that has allowed tens of millions of poorer households to join the global middle class, growth in Latin America has slowed recently, partly as a result of external factors. To close the still large gaps in living standards in relation to advanced economies, the region needs to significantly raise productivity growth while making sure that everybody has the opportunity to benefit from it. This will require comprehensive structural reforms, supported by a pro-productivity policy framework that incorporates social inclusion considerations from the outset.
» Portuguese version: Fomentando o crescimento inclusivo da produtividade na América Latina
» Spanish version: Fomentando un crecimiento inclusivo de la productividad en América Latina
Helped by the reforms, well-being has improved over the last five years. The share of informal workers fell by 3 percentage points, giving more workers, particularly the most vulnerable, access to stable incomes, training opportunities, financial services, health care and pension coverage. Health care and education coverage have improved, as have education outcomes, including for low-performing students.
|Middle East and North Africa (MENA region)||
The MENA region registered relatively dynamic economic growth and investment rates during the first decade of the century, even during the global economic and financial crisis. This was helped by important reforms by many governments to increase economic openness, diversification, private sector development and institutional reform. The participation of Tunisia and Jordan in the Open Government Partnership, the massive investment in infrastructure by Morocco and Egypt to increase connectivity and improve participation in global trade, and the efforts of the United Arab Emirates to diversify its economy demonstrate the great potential of the region to achieve progress. However, recent political instability and security threats have considerably slowed economic prospects. Reforms have not succeeded in tackling deeper structural challenges, such as corruption, unemployment, uneven development and unequal opportunities, especially for disadvantaged regions, women and youth. Appropriate policy responses are needed to regain stability and lay the foundations for a more open economy and a more inclusive development model. While the MENA region is profoundly heterogeneous, there are significant common economic and institutional trends that support the need for more concerted action to exploit the immense potential of the region and ensure its fruitful integration into the global economy.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is universal, inclusive and indivisible and calls for action by all countries, irrespective of their level of development. Like other all OECD member countries, Poland is now looking for ways to best implement the Agenda and meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.
Having been hit hard by the global crisis, the Portuguese government has taken action to put its economy back on track, and to correct external and budgetary imbalances. This document highlights some key priorities to support economic growth and competitiveness through further productivity-enhancing structural reforms.
Russia: Modernising the Economy (April 2013)
Russia has made fast progress in reducing poverty and catching up with the income level of advanced OECD countries over the past decade. However this progress has been largely supported by rising oil prices rather than the structural transformation of the economy. It has also been uneven. Regional and personal inequalities remain extremely large. Continuing the improvement in living standards requires simultaneously reducing dependence on natural resources, modernising the economy and fostering more inclusive and sustainable growth.
» Russian version: Россия МОДЕРНИЗАЦИЯ ЭКОНОМИКИ (pdf)
The Slovak Republic is one of the most dynamic economies in the euro area. The country has continued to converge rapidly towards the living standards of advanced OECD economies. However, the Slovak Republic should continue on its path of reform to achieve balanced, fair and sustainable growth.
To improve Slovenia’s long-term growth prospects and support job creation, comprehensive structural reforms are needed to boost competitiveness, in particular by addressing the country’s productivity gap with other OECD countries. Drawing on the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of Slovenia, this paper provides a snapshot at the pension, product markets, and labour market reforms that have been implemented or approved and assesses their impact on productivity, employment and GDP.
» Slovenian version: Slovenija: Učinki strukturnih reform na gospodarsko rast (pdf)
Spain: Policies for a Sustainable Recovery (October 2011)
This report provides an update on policies that the OECD believes can contribute in six areas that are crucial for a lasting improvement in Spain’s future: public finances; labour market; pension system; innovation; environment, green growth and climate change; education.
» Spanish version: España - Políticas para una recuperación sostenible
Promoting Well-being and Inclusiveness in Sweden (August 2016)
Drawing on the expertise and experience of OECD member countries, the brochure lays out key policy priorities in the areas of education, migration, development co-operation, housing, public investment and environmental quality to support the Swedish government in addressing current challenges.
Tunisia has made great strides since 2011 towards greater inclusivity and fairness in its political system, based on the rule of law, transparency and good governance. The country now needs to adopt a new growth model to achieve its full potential and cement the democratic transition.
The UK should build on its strong foundations to boost its recovery and restore confidence, according to this OECD report that Secretary-General Angel Gurria presented in London.